Diseases and pests often arise because of a lack of diligence and prudence in handling the production of one of the maintenance process. This raises a new job because of diseases and pests that attack should be addressed. For some people, the easiest way to cope is to use fungicides, insecticides and other chemicals. However, the use of chemicals turned out to pose new problems, the plant in this oyster mushrooms become polluted and unhealthy chemicals to be consumed so as to lower the selling price. The most appropriate way to deal with diseases and pests is a method of prevention, because prevention is better than cure ..
Before understanding what things are needed in the prevention, first requires a knowledge of how diseases and pests can spread. There are 5 ways / media that can cause major pests and diseases:
Pests and diseases such as fungal spores pengkontaminasi, nuisance bacteria, or viruses can spread easily through air flow. Even insect pests can be spread by flying against the flow of air. Similarly, water, soil, humans, and the seeds can carry the same disease as the source of air.
Knowledge about the source of pests and diseases is an important part in the prevention process. Therefore, the key to preventing the onset of various diseases and pests is to maintain cleanliness and sanitation.
There are 5 points that must be considered in maintaining cleanliness:
1. Smooth circulation of air
2. Cleanliness of water
3. Perfect pasteurization and sterile
4. Sanitation workers
5. Environmental cleanliness both inside and around kumbung
The types of pests and diseases that could interfere with the growth of oyster mushrooms such as insects, spiders, worms, slugs, termites, fungi, parasites and saprophyte, as well as bacteria and viruses. Here’s how to prevent it:
Flies and mosquitoes are a lot of insects found in kumbung are not properly maintained. Insects usually go along with entry and exit of workers, through vents, or through small holes that were not detected. Humid conditions coupled with the aroma of the substrate / media log is preferred that these insects eventually multiply in the kumbung. Insect will lay its eggs on medium baglog. After hatching, the larvae will eat the growing mycelium and fruit body so that the oyster mushroom oyster mushroom stems with holes and the growth of oyster mushroom fruiting bodies to be disturbed (wrinkles). After entering the phase of active adult (flying) insects will move to a medium mushroom logs that are still healthy and breed. So forth so that within a certain period can cause considerable damage. In addition, the insects also commonly act as vectors / carriers of disease / virus that could interfere with the growth of oyster mushrooms. Several types of insect-pests that can transmit diseases such as mildew on kumbung
Prevention of attacks – these insects can be done by placing a small wire netting in the vents and put a clear plastic on the outside of the door to refract light so that insects tend to shy away and stay away from kumbung. If this practice is still lacking, it can be done by way of efforts to control insect traps insects in kumbung form of glue that is applied evenly on a sheet of paper / plastic yellow.
Spiders can eat the mycelium and fruiting bodies of oyster mushroom. In addition, the spider can also spread the fungal spores bullies. Prevention can be done with chalk powder spread on the surface of the floor and walls kumbung. If there are cobwebs (usually found on the sidelines baglog) it must be immediately destroyed.
This pest usually eats worms that can cause fungal mycelium did not grow at all / failure to thrive. Worm pests is very small (± 1 mm) and can multiply rapidly. Worm pest prevention can be done with perfect sterilization process so that the eggs of the worm dies.
Kumbung room is not clean and the floors are dirty and muddy kumbung often invite the arrival of a snail. Snails will eat the oyster mushroom fruiting bodies grow, so the new growth of oyster mushrooms to be not optimal / damaged. One natural way to prevent or overcome the slug attack is by spraying the floor and shelves kumbung with extracts of Jatropha.
Detecting the presence of termites is relatively difficult. Usually we are only aware of the presence of termites after seeing the damage caused. Termites eat the substances contained in wood is cellulose. This substance is also present in the oyster mushroom baglog media so that the possibility of damage baglog also quite large. A simple way is by spraying anti-termite chemicals. Natural ways that can be pursued by using lemongrass extract that is sprayed onto the soil or the affected part kumbung attack.
Diseases of the oyster mushroom is usually caused by fungi, molds, bacteria or viruses. Oyster mushrooms or baglog the disease is usually characterized by the emergence of colored stains, slimy, or physical damage to the oyster mushroom fruiting bodies that can not be harvested. In general, the incidence of fungal disease is caused due to lack of sterility production process from nurseries to incubation.
Several types of diseases commonly found in oyster mushrooms are:
1. Trichoderma spp
Trichoderma can be spread through the air or carried away by the workers. The characteristics of contamination caused by this fungus is the emergence of green spots spots or stains on the media so baglog oyster mushroom oyster mushroom mycelium growth becomes stunted. Trichoderma is usually a lot of media found on mushroom logs that have died or on the soil surface. How to solve this problem is to immediately dispose of oyster mushroom log media that has been contaminated. While prevention can be done by performing sterilization / desinfektasi labor and equipment used for the treatment kumbung.
2. Mucor spp.
Contamination Mucor marked with black spotting on the surface of baglog media. This contamination led to the growth of Mucor competition with oyster mushroom mycelium. Prevention can be done by reducing the amount of the composition baglog mushrooms and set up / lower the temperature of the room by opening and regulating the circulation of air.
3. Neurospora spp
Neurospora can inhibit the growth of mycelium and fruiting bodies. Neurospora raises flour “orange” on the surface of the cotton stopper baglog. Prevention is done by performing sterilization baglog media perfectly and reduce the amount of the composition baglog oyster mushrooms.
4. Penicillium spp
Contamination of mycelial growth of Penicillium marked with dark brown / maroon. Prevention can be done by maintaining the cleanliness of the incubation chamber. Meanwhile, in order to cope with Penicillium attack from spreading is to dispose of contaminated media baglog.